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The robots take over

November 2018 Gadgets Health and Wellness Innovation Productivity

The robots take over

robot assisted surgery

1920

Czech playwright and novelist Karel Capek coins the term ‘robot’ in his play RUR (Rossum’s Universal Robots)

1942

Issac Asimov talks about ‘three laws of robotics’ in his short story. Runaraound, popularising the term ‘robotics’.

1950

NASA develops the concept of telepresence

1961

World’s first industrial robot, Unimate, installed at General Motors plant in Trenton, New Jersey

1969

World’s first computer-controlled robotic arm, Stanford Arm, is developed by Stanford Artificial Intelligence Lab researcher Victor Scheinman

1983

Arthrobot, world’s first surgical robot developed for orthopaedic surgery, is used in Vancouver, Canada

1985

PUMA 560, a robotic surgical arm, is used for needle brain biopsy in the first instance of documented robot-assisted surgery.

1988

ROBODOC, a surgical robot, is used to perform full human hip replacement procedure
PROBOT used at Imperial College, London, in clinical trials to carry out transurethral surgery in urology

1993

AESOP, Automated Endoscope System for Optimal Positioning, a robotic arm is released for use in holding and positioning camera in laparoscopic procedures

1994

Cyberknife is used for stereotactic radiosurgery

1995

Intuitive Surgical Inc founded. The company designs, constructs and markets robotic products for minimally invasive surgeries

1998

ZEUS, robotic surgical system, is used for the first complete endoscopic robot-assisted surgery. It comprises three table-mounted robotic arms and a surgical control centre
A robot-assisted heart bypass is done in Leipzig, Germany using da Vinci from Intuitive Surgical Inc

1999

First standard da Vinci robotic surgical system is launched in the market

2000

da Vinci gets the Food and Drug Administration approval in USA for laparoscopic procedures
First RARP (Robot-Assisted Radical Prostatectomy) is performed in Paris, France

• 2001

ZEUS system helps perform transatlantic remote surgery with the patient with female patient in Strasbourg, France and the surgeon in New York, USA

2003

da Vinci first upgrade; fourth robotic arm added

2006

da Vinci S, with high-definition vision and multi-image display, launched

2009

da Vinci Si, with dual console capability allowing for surgical collaborations, launched

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